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Gum arabic: Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, arabic gum, gum acacia, acacia, Senegal gum and Indian gum, and by other names, is a natural gum consisting of the hardened sap of various species of the acacia tree. Originally, gum arabic was collected from Acacia nilotica which was called the "gum arabic tree"; in the present day, gum arabic is collected from acacia species, predominantly Acacia senegal and Vachellia -Acacia- seyal; the term "gum arabic" does not indicate a particular botanical source. In a few cases so‐called "gum arabic" may not even have been collected from Acacia species, but may originate from Combretum, Albizia or some other genus. Producers harvest the gum commercially from wild trees, mostly in Sudan -80%- and throughout the Sahel, from Senegal to Somalia—though it is historically cultivated in Arabia and West Asia. Gum arabic is a complex mixture of glycoproteins and polysaccharides. It is the original source of the sugars arabinose and ribose, both of which were first discovered and isolated from it, and are named after it. Gum arabic is soluble in water. It is edible, and used primarily in the food industry as a stabilizer, with EU E number E414. Gum arabic is a key ingredient in traditional lithography and is used in printing, paint production, glue, cosmetics and various industrial applications, including viscosity control in inks and in textile industries, though less expensive materials compete with it for many of these roles. While gum arabic is now produced throughout the African Sahel, it is still harvested and used in the Middle East.
Sorbitol: Sorbitol --, less commonly known as glucitol --, is a sugar alcohol with a sweet taste which the human body metabolizes slowly. It can be obtained by reduction of glucose, which changes the aldehyde group to a hydroxyl group. Most sorbitol is made from corn syrup, but it is also found in nature, for example in apples, pears, peaches, and prunes. It is converted to fructose by sorbitol-6-phosphate 2-dehydrogenase. Sorbitol is an isomer of mannitol, another sugar alcohol; the two differ only in the orientation of the hydroxyl group on carbon 2. While similar, the two sugar alcohols have very different sources in nature, melting points, and uses.
Steviol glycoside: Steviol glycosides are the chemical compounds responsible for the sweet taste of the leaves of the South American plant Stevia rebaudiana -Asteraceae- and the main ingredients -or precursors- of many sweeteners marketed under the generic name stevia and several trade names. They also occur in the related species Stevia phlebophylla -but in no other species of Stevia- and in the plant Rubus chingii -Rosaceae-.Steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana have been reported to be between 30 and 320 times sweeter than sucrose, although there is some disagreement in the technical literature about these numbers. They are heat-stable, pH-stable, and do not ferment. Additionally, they do not induce a glycemic response when ingested, because humans can not metabolize stevia. This makes them attractive as natural sugar substitutes for diabetics and other people on carbohydrate-controlled diets. Steviol glycosides stimulate the insulin secretion through potentiation of the β-cell, preventing high blood glucose after a meal. The acceptable daily intake -ADI- for steviol glycosides, expressed as steviol equivalents, has been established to be 4 mg/kg body weight/day, and is based on no observed effects of a 100 fold higher dose in a rat study.
Maltitol: Maltitol is a sugar alcohol -a polyol- used as a sugar substitute. It has 75–90% of the sweetness of sucrose -table sugar- and nearly identical properties, except for browning. It is used to replace table sugar because it is half as caloric, does not promote tooth decay, and has a somewhat lesser effect on blood glucose. In chemical terms, maltitol is known as 4-O-α-glucopyranosyl-D-sorbitol. It is used in commercial products under trade names such as Lesys, Maltisweet and SweetPearl.
Xylitol: Xylitol is a sugar alcohol used as a sweetener. The name derives from Ancient Greek: ξύλον, xyl[on], "wood" + suffix -itol, used to denote sugar alcohols. Xylitol is categorized as a polyalcohol or sugar alcohol -specifically an alditol-. It has the formula CH2OH-CHOH-3CH2OH. It is a colorless or white solid that is soluble in water. Use of manufactured products containing xylitol may reduce tooth decay.